Infertility Health Library

Learn about fertility by clicking on the topics below:

Female infertility

Causes of Female Infertility

Infertility in women is diagnosed through fertility testing when she’s unable to become pregnant after 6 to 12 months of regularly trying, depending on age.

Unexplained Infertility

Unexplained infertility is diagnosed when no specific causes are found through testing. Treatment includes timed intercourse, lifestyle changes, IUI & IVF

Uterine Abnormalities

Uterine abnormalities are anatomical problems with a woman’s uterus that can cause infertility and problems during pregnancy. Learn about symptoms, treatments and risks.


Amenorrhea occurs when a menstruating woman misses 3 or more consecutive periods. It can be temporary, normal (during pregnancy) or permanent (menopause).


Missing periods is a symptom of anovulation (ovaries don't release eggs), accounting for 30% of female infertility & is treated with fertility medication.

Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy occurs when an embryo implants outside a woman’s uterus, most commonly in the fallopian tube, and can often be caused by endometriosis.


Endometriosis–the leading cause of female infertility–causes tissue from the lining of a woman’s uterus to grow outside the uterus, often with no symptoms.

Hormone Imbalance

Hormone imbalances with FSH, LH, estrogen & progesterone can affect male & female infertility. Drug therapy is the most common treatment for men and women.


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading causes of female infertility. Symptoms can be controlled with weight loss, low-carb diets, exercise & medication.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection in the reproductive system causing female infertility, can be caused by STDs and often has no symptoms.

Recurrent Miscarriage

Recurrent miscarriage (miscarriage of 3 or more pregnancies) is caused by genetic or medical conditions. Treatment includes uterine fibroid removal or IVF.

Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors found on a woman's uterus, often causing female infertility. They can be treated through medication or surgery.


When a woman enters menopause (average age in U.S. is 51), she has had no menses for 12 months, her eggs are depleted & she is infertile.

Uterine Polyps

Uterine polyps (noncancerous tissue growths) are a common cause of female infertility. Usually without symptoms, polyps can be treated through hysteroscopy.

Male infertility

Causes of Male Infertility

Male infertility contributes to 40% of infertility cases and can be caused by age, lifestyle & health factors. Fertility treatment includes IUI, ICSI & IVF.

Fertility treatments

Basic Fertility Treatments

Basic fertility treatments such as lifestyle changes, IVF, IUI, ICSI or donation can help men & women overcome infertility, increasing chances of pregnancy.


Cryopreservation, the freezing & storage of eggs, sperm or embryos for future fertility treatments, is an option for those not yet ready to have children.

Donation & Surrogacy

Third party reproduction involves surrogacy (when a woman carries a pregnancy for an individual or couple) and donation of eggs, sperm or embryos for IVF.

Embryo Donation

Parents with unused frozen embryos from IVF can assist other infertile couples with embryo donation, enabling them to implant the embryo for a pregnancy.

Egg Donation

Egg donation, a type of third-party reproduction, enables an infertile woman or couple to achieve pregnancy. Learn the risks & benefits of donating eggs.


Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used during IVF & for male infertility to increase the chances of fertilization. Learn the benefits & risks.


Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is commonly used to treat male & female infertility, increasing chances of pregnancy at a low cost. Learn about IUI.


In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most successful fertility treatment, effective in treating both male & female infertility. Learn the benefits & risks.

Ovulation Induction

Ovulation induction fertility treatment for women with anovulation, PCOS or hormone issues stimulates ovaries to produce eggs, increasing pregnancy chances.


Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a test done on embryos during IVF to identify genetic diseases (cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs) before implantation.

Single Embryo Transfer

Single embryo transfer (SET) during IVF is preferred over multiple embryo transfer, primarily to reduce the chances of twins pregnancy & its health risks.

Sperm Donation

Couples may use donor sperm when the male partner has a genetic condition that could be passed on, low sperm count or quality, or blocked sperm ducts.